Gifted Young Children A Guide for Teachers and Parents Creat Louise Porter is Kindle Louise Porter Is a well known author some of his books are a fascination for read
Gifted Young Children: A Guide for Teachers and Parents Creat Louise Porter is Kindle Louise Porter Is a well-known author, some of his books are a fascination for readers like in the
Gifted Young Children: A Guide for Teachers and Parents book, this is one of the most wanted Louise Porter author readers around the world.
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Praise for the first edition a wealth of creative ideas and practical advice for developing the talents of this under served population Her humour and candor, compassion and insight will endear her work to readers internationally Joan Franklin Smutny, Director, Center for Gifted, National Louis University, USA a comprehensive text that will meet the needs of a wiPraise for the first edition a wealth of creative ideas and practical advice for developing the talents of this under served population Her humour and candor, compassion and insight will endear her work to readers internationally Joan Franklin Smutny, Director, Center for Gifted, National Louis University, USA a comprehensive text that will meet the needs of a wide range of readers from early childhood professionals and teachers to parents Wilma Vialle, The Australasian Journal of Gifted Education Gifted Young Children is a practical guide to identifying and supporting young children who may be gifted or talented Louise Porter outlines how to identify and provide educationally for children aged up to 8 years with advanced development She also explains how teachers and parents can promote the children s emotional and social adjustment, including ways to enhance self esteem, encourage friendships and support their autonomy She shows how parents can discuss giftedness with children and respond to their needs resource for parents and anyone working with or caring for a gifted or talented child.. A viral Books Gifted Young Children: A Guide for Teachers and Parents Here are some notes on the book: Gifted Young children: a guide for teachers and parents by Louise Porter published in 1999Chapter 1: A rationale for gifted education • It takes more than ability alone to be successful: success requires a fortuitous blend of ability, hard work, good chance and advantageous social cirucmstances (Freeman 1998a; Pendarvis & Howley 1996, Winner, 1996). • Terman has followed gifted students from 1920 until present. • Early enrichment can promote the development of young children’s learning capacities• Underachievement can be identified in the earliest years of schools in which case it seems obvious that prevention of underachievement should begin prior to this, namely, in the preschool years (Karnes &Johnson 1991; Karnes et al. 1985; Wolfe, 1990). • The tension between the psychological and political aspects of the label ‘gifted’ can be overcome when we acknowledge that people have differing abilities, while accepting that they have equal worth. • Another source of opposition to gifted education come from those who acknowledge that gifted children have particular needs, but claim that these needs are not as pressing as those of children with learning difficulties. This argument states that society’s scarce resources have to be allocated to the most needy. • Segregated gifted programs can cause criticisms as these programs can give extra status and privileges to children who are already advantaged. • Environment makes a difference to children’s academic levels, which is consistent with more recent notions of giftedness. Heredity and environment contribute to a child’s ultimate development. Tannenbaum (1992) says that the relationship is like the sound of two hands clapping: it is hard to tell which hand is making the louder sound. Chapter 2: The meaning of giftedness • The label we can put on children can have both positive and negative effects on their self-esteem, self-expectations and family and peer relationships (Davis& Rimm, 1998). • Conservative versus liberal – conservative definitions tend to restrict the areas included in the gifted category – say, the top 5% on a given ability measure. • Single versus multidimensional – There is a push for an inclusive definition of giftedness however, at the same time there is a recognition that, although the notion of giftedness needs to be broadened, it cannot become so broad that everyone is regarded as gifted (Runco, 1993). • Potential versus performance – some definitions include underachieving children within the gifted category, despite the fact that they are not demonstrating remarkable abilities in everyday situations • Defining giftedness is something we invent, not something we discovers: it is what one society or another wants it to be. It probably has as much to do with how many resources are available for addressing advanced learners. In other words, the definition of giftedness is political as well as psychological (Sapon-Shevin, 1994). • Spearman (1927) observes that: Intelligence has become a word with so many meanings that finally it has none. • Like Binet, Wechsler believed that personality or ‘non-intellective’ factors played a part in intelligence (Cohen et al. 1988). • Definition 1: A single capacity – The high IQ definition. It is a psycho (brain) metric (measure) testing using an IQ test. Typically someone significantly above the norm IQ is at an IQ of 130. Or the gifted compromise the top 3-5% of the population (conservative stance) and 15-20% (liberal stance). • There could be four areas of intelligence (cognitive, affective (emotional), physical, and intuitive domains) (Clark, 1997). • Definition 2: Multiple capacities – Thurstone’s model believe that intelligence is comprised of 7 separate abilities: verbal comprehension, word fluency, numerical fluency, spatial visualization, associative memory, perceptual speed, and reasoning. Guilford proposed a structure of intellect model in which five separate intellectual operations could be applied to four content areas. Gardner’s multiple intelligences- including linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinaesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal• Taylor’s multiple-talent totem pole- includes content areas (Academic skills, human relations and communicating), intellectual processing abilities (decision making, forecasting and planning), performance abilities (implementation), productive thinking. • Sternberg’s triarchic model – analytic skills, synthetic skills, and the application of thinking skills to practical problems. • Definition 3: Information processing theory. Definition 4: Qualitative differences – it regards giftedness in how gifted individual function neurologically. Gifted students make less information processing errors making them able to learn quicker than others. Gifted students had higher cortical arousal at rest. This could mean that gifted people are more ready to deal with intellectual demands. Jackson and Butterfield (1986) report that gifted children’s information processing skills are similar to older, average learners’ skills. They become more proficient in their strategy use at younger ages. • Emotional sensitivity – the Columbus group believes that gifted individuals’ highly attuned nervous system (their brain) contributes both to advanced learning and to an increase in their emotional sensitivity. • Definition 5: Creativity definition – These researchers believe that creativity is the vital and defining characteristic of giftedness (Albert & Runco, 1986; Renzulli, 1986). Creative individuals are said by Guilford and Torrance to have four abilities: fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration. • Definition 6: The after the fact definitions – It does not define young children as gifted: children are seen only to have the potential for giftedness. It also excludes gifted underachievers. This definition is not really useful for educational terms. • Definition 7 – Giftedness versus talent. Some writers used the terms gifted and talented interchangeably. Gagne argues that giftedness is an innate capacity whereas talent is a developed ability. • Definition 8: Other cultural views. Talents can vary within cultures. Australian aboriginal people view talents such as healing, lore, story telling, religion, music, crafts, hunting and tracking. • A good definition could be: Gifted young children are those who have the capacity to learn at a pace and level of complexity that is significantly advanced of their age peers in any domain or domains that are valued in and promoted by their sociocultural group. Chapter 3: The making of talent• Model 1: Renzulli’s three ring model. Those who have achieved recognition posses three interlocking traits: above-average ability, creativity, and task commitment. Together these three traits constitute giftedness. Renzulli’s model does not identify underachieving gifted students (Gagne, 1991; Gross, 1993). • Model 2: Tannenbaum’s psychosocial model. These 5 factors must coincide optimally for an individuals potential to be expressed: general ability, special aptitudes, non-intellective factors, environmental supports and chance. There are static and dynamic dimensions. General ability: static dimension – refers to our brain. Dynamic dimension – refers to how well she or he is able to do something. Special abilities: static dimension – expression of spcial talents requires above average general ability. Special abilities: dynamic dimension – refers to how to individual processes information in the domain in which she or he has a special aptitude. Non-intellective factors: static dimension – personality traits. Non intellective factors – dynamic dimension – self esteem etc. The environment: static dimension – family, school etc. The environment: dynamic dimension – parents, teachers etc. Chance factors: static dimension: accidental life circumstances. Chance factors: dynamic dimension – Austin’s three levels of luck. • Model 3: Sternberg and Lubart’s creativity model. • Model 4: The developmental model. It states that giftedness is not a personal characteristic that is fixed for life, but rather a dynamic quality. • Model 5: Gagne’s differentiated model of giftedness and talent. Giftedness is defined to him as an untrained natural ability. Gagne’s domains roughly align with gardney’s multiple intelligences. • Author’s model. The author blends all the models together. It can equally apply to children with intellectual disabilities as to advanced learners. Component 1: Environment – The environment stimulates a problem to solves, shapes individuals’ neurological functioning through diet and early stimulation, affecting motivation, shaping performance. There are many ways how the environment can promote or obstruct the actualization of one’s development. Component 2: The task. Component 3: central nervous system. An individual’s neurological structure are set down genetically, but are also influence by external factors such as trauma. Component 4: Information processing skills. Individuals actively select which aspects of a task to attend to and store, and what information from previous experience is undertaken. (three thinking processes include: knowledge acquisition processes, metacognitive skills, intellectual style). Component 5: experiential (memory) store. Ebert’s (1994) cognitive spiral model. Experiences (thoughts, feelings, behaviours) can simultaneously be consequences of previous experiences and causes of future performances. Component 6: performance. Component 7: Social evaluation of a performance. Previous influences, the environment, motivation levels, experiential memory and even an overexcited CNS can cause some gifted people to underachieve. Chapter 4: Recognising advanced development in young children • The characteristics of gifted children could be inaccurate, owing to three sources of bias in studies. The first source is the strong representation of middle-class children in many studies, such as Terman’s longitudinal work. The second source of bias arises from studies relying on teacher nominations of gifted children. This tends to lead to inclusion of only those children who are academically well adjusted while underrepresenting children who are experiencing school-based difficulties (Gross, 1993; Roedell et al. 1980). The third form of bias is introduced by anecdotal evidence from clinical practitioners who, by definition, see children who are having difficulties. The result can be that practitioners gain a false impression about the prevalence of adjustment problems in gifted children. Gifted children can retain and retrieve more knowledge than others and quicker. • It is good to have an internal locus of control. • Many studies report that gifted children speak much earlier than is typical, resulting in a wider and more complex vocabulary and sentence structure from an early age. Receptive language ability is a robust indicator of intellectual ability. Exceptionally early readers often are highly gifted (Gross, 1993a). Highly gifted children can experience social difficulties from early childhood onwards. Young gifted children will often form strong attachments to one or two friends. Gifted children might set too high standards of others. • Self-concept develops early with gifted children. Gifted children are more likely to be perfectionists. There are different types of perfectionism. • An IQ scale is more like the street numbers on letter-boxes, whose distance apart will depend on the size of each block of land. Exceptional giftedness occurs at the rate of around one in a million (Gross, 1993). Child prodigies demonstrate adult-level performance at an extremely early age. Chapter 5: Assessing developmental advances in young children • A criterion referenced measure tell you what a child is achieving, although, not how well that achievement compares with other children’s of the same age. A norm referenced test is typically a developmental or intelligence test. • There are 7 principals to guide assessment for gifted children: advocacy, defensibility, equity, pluralism, comprehensiveness, pragmatism, and programming relevance. Advocacy – it should uphold the interests of all children. Defensibility – assessment should be based on the best available research and knowledge. Equity- the assessment should not disadvantage any groups. Pluralism – the broadest definition of giftedness should be adopted. Comprehensiveness – Many gifted children should be identified as possible. Pragmatism – they should be efficient in terms of financial and personnel resources. Programming relevance – the assessment needs to be able to do more than diagnose. It must also identify a child’s strengths and needs. Accurate assessment remains a difficult task. • Parents are very good at identifying whether their child is gifted (more so than educators). A surprising finding of this study was that 100% of the children who were nominated by their parents but who were no identified as gifted on the IQ had histories of recurrent ear infections. • Teacher nominations is the most widely used means of identifying gifted children (McBride, 1992). • Typically giftedness is defined as being 2 standard deviations above the mean (mean is 100). So this would be an IQ of 130 on the Wechsler test and 132 on the Standford-Binet. • Critics claim that although IQ tests are reliable, they do not necessarily measure anything worthwhile. The IQ test identifies children’s strengths, thus shifting from a deficit orientation. Underachievers and gifted children with learning disabilities can be identified as well. The IQ test is still the most technically sound measure of academic ability and should not be replaced by a less sound instrument. • To identify a child you need collaboration between the parents and teacher. • Rowe (1990) suggests that many professionals rely on testing as a drunk relies on a lamp post. Chapter 6: Emotional adjustment of gifted children• The literature on gifted children’s social and emotional adjustment focuses mainly on their friendships, popularity, and self-esteem. Endogenous factors are characteristics of an individual that of an individual that affect his or her functioning, while exogenous factors are external events that influence a person’s adjustment. • Gifted individuals are at risk of social emotional difficulties not because their nervous system is created qualitatively differently, but because their atypical needs are met either with negative reactions or indifference. • Others argue that gifted children’s social-emotional development actually proceeds better than that of average learners. This might be because these studies are from gifted students who specifically come from high SES and strong backing for achievement. The other argument is that gifted children can used their sophisticated cognitive skills in order to solve any problems they face. • Others then say that there is no difference. There is little research to prove that gifted individuals are more emotionally vulnerable than the rest of the populations (Gallagher, 1990; Gust, 1997). There are flaws in the studies. For instance some studies focus on students who are already in G&T programs. Usually these students are well adjusted. There is a downturn in young people’s confidence during the high school years. Children in gifted programs appear to experience lowered academic self-concepts as a result of having more able classmates with whom to compare themselves. Gifted students with high verbal abilities may have a harder time adjusting (compared to say mathematical abilities) as their ability stands out much more. One analysis concludes that 10% of gifted populations will have psychiatric disturbances for at least some of their lives (Simonton, 1984). Chapter 7: Gifted young children’s self-esteem• Success at something meaningful breeds confidence. • In the first two years or so, when young children are learning to trust their caregivers, their self-esteem relies almost entirely on whether they feel loved and accepted. Self-esteem has three parts – the self-concept, the ideal self, and self-esteem itself. • 1.The term self-concept is also termed self-perception. Young children’s self concept describes how they look, what they wear, their health, their possessions, as they get older, they begin to describe themselves in terms of their relationships, abilities, talents at sport and academic work etc. Global self-concept is made up for five facets: social, emotional, academic, family and physical. • 2.The ideal self – this is our belief about how we ‘should’ be. We compare ourselves to other people and evaluate ourselves accordingly. • 3.Self-esteem – An unhealthy or low self-esteem can come about in either of two ways. First, our beliefs about the type of person we are might not be accurate. Second, our expectations of ourselves could be too high. • People with low self-esteem are reliant on the approval of others. It is the belief that children have to ‘earn’ approval rather than deserving it just for being themselves. Finally, some individuals are motivated not so much by the desire to succeed as by the desire to avoid failure. This may yield to underachievement as a result of not seriously challenging their skills or compulsive high achievement. In terms of social adjustment, children with low self-esteem can be rejected by other people partly because they do not have the emotional resources to be supportive to others. • This means that underachieving gifted children generally have lower self-esteem than high achievers, with can be both a result and a cause of their underachievement. • Academic self-esteem lowers as they get older as students are concerned about the social stigma attached to being gifted. • Encourage autonomy. If an activity needs to be done, such as washing hand before a snack, then we cannot give a choice of whether to do it, but we can give option about how. If there is no choice about how, then we can give a choice about how we feel about it. E.g it’s time to wash your hands. You can get upset about that or you can get on with it happily. • Self-esteem is literally a self-evaluation.Chapter 8: Promoting resilience in gifted young children • The stress reaction in the body involves four stages: an adrenalin-based alarm reaction, cognitive appraisal of the situation, search for a coping strategies, and implementation of a selected strategy (Honig, 1986a). • Stress is a reaction to events that have actually occurred, whereas anxiety is a response to anticipated events-events that might not even happen at all (Silverman et al. 1995). Worry is the cognitive component of anxiety. • Exceptionally gifted children experience more stress than mildly gifted children (Miller et al. 1994). • Sources of stress include high expectations and involvement in adult issues. • Having an internal locus of control involves believing that one’s own actions affect outcomes, this is often called having a sense of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1986). • Low self-esteem can indicate that children are internalizing their stress. External indicators of stress include behavioural difficulties, underachievement, lack of age-appropriate independence, withdrawal, and impulsive behaviour. • Children’s ability to adjust to stressful events is more related to their self-esteem and self-efficacy than to their cognitive problem-solving skills. Older children’s stress relates mainly to their relationships (Slee, 1993), personal adequacy, and the future (Rutter, 1985).
Gifted Young Children A guide for teachers and parents nd Edition Published on May , by Routledge Gifted Young Children is a practical guide to identifying and supporting young children who may be gifted or t Gifted Young Children A guide for Gifted Young Children A Guide for Teachers and Parents by Jan , Here are some notes on the book Gifted Young children a guide for teachers and parents by Louise Porter published in Chapter A rationale for gifted education It takes than ability alone to be successful success requires a fortuitous blend of ability, hard work, good chance and advantageous social cirucmstances Freeman a Gifted Young Children A Guide For Teachers Gifted Young Children is a practical guide to identifying and supporting young children who may be gifted or talented Louise Porter outlines how to identify and provide educationally for children aged Traits Characteristics of Young Gifted Children Sep , Gifted Traits in Young Children As infants, they may get fussy if facing one direction for too long As infants, appear alert Need less sleep, even as infants Frequently reach milestones such Young Bright Children National Association for Gifted Young Bright Children Young gifted learners are a heterogeneous group where each child develops skills and abilities at different rates so Teachers and schools are not trained to recognize advanced Unique Traits and Characteristics of Gifted Children Behaviour in Schools